What is Operating System and Types of Operating System

computer-systemOperating System: An operating system is a program that manage the computer hardware.It also provides a basis for application programs and acts as an intermediary between the user of the computer and the computer hardware.

A more common definition  is that the operating system is the one program running at all times on the computer(usually called the kernel) with all else being system programs and application programs.

Computer system Components:

  • Hardware – Provides basis computing resources(cpu,memory and i/o devices)
  • Operating System Control:- Controls and Co-ordinates the use of the hardware among the various application programs for the various user.
  • The application Programs-includes compilers,database system,game & business program.
  • The user- who use the  computer system.

What are the main  purpose of an operating System:

  1. Execute programs and make solving user problems easier.
  2. Make the computer system convenient to use.
  3. Use the computer hardware in an efficient manner.
  4. Provides reasonable computing environment for application programs.
  5. Maximize resource utilization
  6. Control and Co-ordinate the use of the hardware among the various applications for the various users.


What are the types of operating systems?

  1. Batch operating system
  2. Time sharing operating System
  3. Real time operating system
  4. Distributed operating System.
  5. Multiprogramming Operating system
  6. Multiprocessor/parallel operating system.
  7. Multitasking operating system.
  8. Desktop System


Batch system:        


Jobs with similar needs are batched together and run through the computer as a group by an operator or automatic job sequence. Performance is increased by attempting to keep CPU and i/o devices busy all times through switches,off-time operation,spooling and multiprogramming.


 Time Sharing System:

Uses CPU Scheduling and  and multiprogramming to provide economical interactive use of a system. The CPU switches rapidly from one user to another.

Real Time Operating system:

The system must respond to inputs/commands within a fixed amount of time to ensure correct performance.Input is typically read from sensors.

Distributed System:

Divides computation up among several computers.The computers do not share memory or a clock,they communicate with each other via communication lines such as high speed bus, telephone lines and so on.

Multiprogramming Operating system

Multiprogrammed system provide an environment in which the various resources(CPU,memory and peripherals)are utilized effectively,but the dot provide for user interaction with the computer system.It also allows running multiple programs simultaneously on one CPU.

Multiprocessor/parallel operating system:

Multiprocessor systems with more than one CPU in  close communication.It is a tightly coupled system-processor share memory and  a clock,Communication usually takes place through the shared memory.user is transparent in multiprocessor systems.

 Multitasking operating system:

Multitasking is a logical extension of multiprogramming. In multitasking systems the CPU executes multiple jobs switching among them,but the switches occur so frequently that the users can interact with each program while it is running.Multitasking requires an interactive(hands-on)computer system which provides direct communication between the user and the system.


Desktop Systems:

Desktop system is a computer system dedicated to a single user.In desktop system the I/O devices or most common computer hardware are used such as  keyboards,mice,display screen,small printers.it’s user convenience and responsiveness.

All the above operating systems support all systems software ,applications software  or most commonly used computer software that makes the computer superior from the other electronics devices.

Imagre source :karbosguide.com



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